Congenital heart disease is one or more problems with the heart's structure that exist since birth. 先天性意味着你生来就有缺陷. Congenital heart disease, also called congenital heart defect, 能改变血液流经心脏的方式吗. 有些先天性心脏缺陷可能不会引起任何问题. 然而,复杂的缺陷会导致危及生命的并发症.

Advances in diagnosis and treatment have allowed babies with congenital heart disease to survive well into adulthood. Sometimes, signs and symptoms of congenital heart disease aren't seen until you're an adult.

If you have congenital heart disease you likely will need care throughout your life. 和你的医生确认你需要多久做一次检查.


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有些先天性心脏缺陷不会引起任何征兆或症状. 对一些人来说,体征或症状出现在晚年. 而且,在你接受了心脏缺陷的治疗后,症状可能会在几年之后再次出现.


  • 心律失常(心律不齐)
  • 皮肤、嘴唇和指甲呈蓝色(发绀)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Tiring quickly upon exertion
  • 身体组织或器官肿胀(水肿)

When to see a doctor

If you're having worrisome symptoms, 比如胸痛或呼吸短促, seek emergency medical attention.

If you have signs or symptoms of congenital heart disease or were treated for a congenital heart defect as a child, 预约看医生.


研究人员还不确定大多数先天性心脏病的病因. 有些先天性心脏病是通过家族遗传的。.


  • The heart is divided into chambers — two upper chambers (atria) and two lower chambers (ventricles).
  • The right side of the heart moves blood to the lungs through blood vessels (pulmonary arteries).
  • In the lungs, blood picks up oxygen and then returns to the left side of your heart through the pulmonary veins.
  • The left side of the heart then pumps the blood through the aorta and out to the rest of the body.

先天性心脏病可以影响这些心脏结构, including the arteries, valves, 腔室和分隔腔室的组织壁(隔膜).

Risk factors

Certain environmental and genetic risk factors might play a role in the development of congenital heart disease, including:

  • Your genes. Congenital heart disease appears to run in families (inherited) and is associated with many genetic syndromes. 例如,患有唐氏综合症的儿童经常有心脏缺陷. Genetic testing can detect Down syndrome and other disorders during a baby's development.
  • German measles (rubella). Having rubella during pregnancy may affect how the baby's heart develops while in the womb.
  • Diabetes. Having type 1 or type 2 diabetes during pregnancy also may affect a baby's heart development. Gestational diabetes generally doesn't increase the risk of congenital heart disease.
  • Medications. Taking certain medications while pregnant can cause congenital heart disease and other birth defects. Medications linked to heart defects include lithium for bipolar disorder and isotretinoin (Claravis, Myorisan, Zenatane, others), which is used to treat acne. 一定要告诉你的医生你服用的药物.
  • Alcohol. Drinking alcohol while pregnant also contributes to the risk of heart defects in the baby.
  • Smoking. A mother who smokes while pregnant increases her risk of having a child with a congenital heart defect.


Congenital heart disease complications that might develop years after you receive treatment include:

  • Irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias). Arrhythmias occur when the electrical signals that coordinate your heartbeat don't work properly. 你的心脏可能跳得太快、太慢或不规则. In some people, severe arrhythmias can cause stroke or sudden cardiac death if not treated. Scar tissue in your heart from previous surgeries can contribute to this complication.
  • Heart infection (endocarditis). 心内膜炎是心脏内膜(心内膜)的一种感染。. It generally occurs when bacteria or other germs enter your bloodstream and move to your heart. Untreated, endocarditis can damage or destroy your heart valves or trigger a stroke. 如果你患心内膜炎的风险很高, 建议你在洗牙前一小时服用抗生素. 定期的牙齿检查很重要. Healthy gums and teeth reduce the risk that bacteria will enter the bloodstream.
  • Stroke. A congenital heart defect can allow a blood clot to pass through your heart and travel to your brain, 它会减少或阻碍血液供应吗.
  • Pulmonary hypertension. 这是一种会影响肺部动脉的高血压. Some congenital heart defects send more blood to the lungs, causing pressure to build. 这最终会导致你的心脏肌肉变弱,有时甚至衰竭.
  • Heart failure. Heart failure (congestive heart failure) means your heart can't pump enough blood to meet your body's needs. 某些类型的先天性心脏病会导致心力衰竭.


患有轻度先天性心脏病的妇女可以顺利怀孕. However, some women with complex congenital heart defects are advised against pregnancy.

如果你在考虑怀孕, 和你的医生谈谈可能的风险和并发症. Together you can discuss and plan for any special care you might need during pregnancy.


Both men and women with congenital heart disease are at increased risk of passing some form of congenital heart disease to their children. Your doctor might suggest genetic counseling or screening if you plan to have children.


June 06, 2021
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